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Understanding Ruby's idiom:

Ruby has some idioms that are used pretty commonly, but not very often understood. is one of them. We can see it being used everywhere to call a method on every array element, but why does this work? What’s really happening under the hood?

In case you don’t know Ruby’s map

map is used to execute a block of code for each element of a given Enumerable object, like an Array. Here’s an example:

class Foo
  def method_name
    puts "method called for #{object_id}"

[,].map do |element| 

# => method called for 70339841711300
# => method called for 70339841711280

As we are just calling method_name for each element of the list, Ruby allows us to use this idiom:


What Ruby does when it sees &

The first thing that happens is that, whenever Ruby sees a & for a parameter, it wants this parameter to be a Proc. If this is not the case already, Ruby calls #to_proc on this object to convert it. Let’s confirm this is true:

class MyClass
  def to_proc
    puts "trying to convert to a proc" {}


# => trying to convert to a proc

If you don’t know what a Proc is, you can consider it to be just like a lambda or a closure. It’s a piece of code that can be moved around and executed (by calling call() on it, for instance).

As we passed a MyClass instance with & to map, it tried to call to_proc on it. This holds true for any method call, not just map.

Back to the previous example, we are calling map with &:method_name. So we know that Ruby will see that & and try to call :method_name.to_proc. The next step is to understand what Symbol#to_proc does.

Symbol’s smart to_proc implementation

What Symbol#to_proc does is quite clever. It tries to calls a method with the same name (in our example, method_name) on the given object.

Maybe an example will make more sense:"string")

When we call to_proc on the :upcase symbol, it will return a Proc object that just call the upcase method for the given parameter (“string”).

Implementing our own version

One of the approaches that I like to take to understand how something works is to create my own dumb implementation of it. After we understand all the building blocks that make this idiom work, this should not be that hard.

First, let’s implement our own map method:

def my_map(enumerable, &block)
  result = []
  enumerable.each { |element| result << }

We iterate over the Enumerable object and execute that given block. We know that block is going to be a Proc, because Ruby called to_proc on it, so we can just call it.
And this works.

my_map(["foo", "bar"], &:upcase)
# => ["FOO", "BAR"]

Now let’s implement our own Symbol functionality:

class MySymbol
  def initialize(method_name)
    @method_name = method_name

  def to_proc do |element|

We know that we just need to implement the to_proc method that Ruby is going to call and make it return a Proc object.
As this is not really a Symbol, we will define the method to be called in the constructor. The method name is dynamic, so we need to use Ruby’s send to call it.
And this works.

my_map(["foo", "bar"], &"upcase"))
# => ["FOO", "BAR"]


  • Ruby instantiates a MySymbol object;
  • Ruby checks that there is a & and calls to_proc on this object;
  • MySymbol#to_proc returns a Proc object, that expects a parameter (element) and calls a method on it (upcase);
  • my_map iterates over the received list (['foo', 'bar']) and calls the received Proc on each element, passing it as a parameter (;
  • The Proc then executes element.send("upcase"), that is basically the same as "foo".upcase, and will return the expected result.

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